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Julian Cook
Julian Cook


In this chapter, we will learn about Execution Order of Hooks. If you ever have worked with TestNG, you must know that it performs the execution in a certain order. The same way Cucumber also executes the hooks in a certain order. But there are ways to change the order of the executing according to the need of the test or the framework.


Order hooks to run in a particular sequence is easy to do. As we already know the way to specify hooks in cucumber-like putting an annotation just above the scenario. Ordering also works the same way but the only difference is that it required an extra parameter. This extra parameter decides the order of execution of the certain hook.

Keyword that identifies the query as a recursive CTE. This keyword is required if any common_table_expression defined in the WITH clause is recursive. You can only specify the RECURSIVE keyword once, immediately following the WITH keyword, even when the WITH clause contains multiple recursive CTEs. In general, a recursive CTE is a UNION ALL subquery with two parts.

To introduce the TUI interface, lets begin by a simple but complete example ofADAO calculation case. All the data are explicitly defined inside the script inorder to make the reading easier. The whole set of commands is the followingone:

Thereafter, the case has to be build by preparing and storing the data thatdefine the study. The commands order does not matter, it is sufficient that allthe concepts, required by the algorithm used, are present. The user can referto the [DocR] Reference description of the ADAO commands and keywords and its subparts to get details about commandsby algorithm. Here, we define successively the chosen data assimilation oroptimization algorithm and its parameters, then the a priori state (named Background) and its errors covariance (named BackgroundError), and after that, the observation (named Observation) and its errors covariance (named ObservationError):

In order to try in a simple way this example of TUI calculation case, we setourselves in a twin experiments case (for information, see the approachTo test a data assimilation chain: the twin experiments). For that, we choose for example the followingentries, perfectly arbitrary, by building the observations by simulation. Thenwe solve the adjustment problem through the command set execution that follows.Finally, the whole problem is set and solved by the following script:

Whenever you visit a pharmacy and ask for a particular medicine, have you noticed something? It hardly takes any time for the pharmacist to find it among several medicines. This is because all the items are arranged in a certain fashion which helps them know the exact place to look for. They may be arranged in alphabetical order or according to their category such as ophthalmic or neuro or gastroenterology and so on. A proper arrangement not only saves time but also make operations simple and easy, hence sorting is essential. Here is an article about sys.argv command line argument for deeper understanding in Python.

In the code above, you can see the sorted_tuples when cast to tuples is retained in an ordered manner whereas sorted_sets when casted does not return an order list since it is unordered by definition.

reverse is an optional keyword argument that changes the sorting order according to the Boolean value assigned to it. The default value is False, which performs sorting in ascending order. However, if the value is given as True, descending sort occurs:

The namedtuple is used to produce classes with name and grade attributes. The lambda is used to get the grade property of each student and reverse is used to reverse the output into descending order so that the highest grades are arranged first.

tuples is declared with the name, grade and age of three persons. The function itemgetter is imported from the module operator and then it is sorted by age and the output displayed in ascending order.

Python raises a TypeError because it cannot sort None and int in the same list because of their incompatibility. It uses the less than operator (

Consider a situation where the first letter is the same for all the strings that need to be sorted. In such cases, the sorted() function will use the second letter to determine the order and if the second letter is also same, it will consider the third letter and so on, till the end of string:

In this code above, a class Student is created with student objects name, grade and age. Firstly, the original values are decorated and then sorted. Finally, the decorations are removed from decorated_values and then the new list is created with original values in new order.

The good news is that choosing the right long-tail keywords for your website pages is actually a fairly simple process -- one that's made all the more simple and quick when you use the right tools to perform your keyword research.

In this post, we'll cover the nine best tools out there for performing keyword research for your website content. Before we get started though, let's briefly go over two important things to consider as you do your research: relevance and (if applicable) location.

For instance, if you own a company that installs swimming pools, it's likely that you'd attract more qualified prospects by targeting a keyword such as "fiberglass in-ground pool installation," rather than "swimming pools." That's because there's a good chance that someone searching for "fiberglass in-ground pool installation" is looking for information on installation or someone to perform the installation ... and that could be you!

Sure, optimizing for "swimming pools" has its place. But there's no doubt that this keyword will attract a much more generic audience that may not be looking for what you have to offer. Go for the relevant, long-tail keywords instead.

Another major factor to consider when optimizing for the right keywords is location-based searches. When looking for contractors and services in their specific area, search engine users will usually include their location in the search. So, "fiberglass in-ground pool installation" becomes "fiberglass in-ground pool installation in Boston, MA."

If you operate in one geo-location, you may want to consider adding location-based keywords to all of your pages, since traffic from other locations isn't going to be very much help to you. If your business operates in several geo-locations, it is also a wise choice to create a separate web page dedicated to each location so you can make sure your brand is present when people are searching for individual locations.

Now, how do you choose the right keywords for your business? We certainly don't recommend guessing, for obvious reasons. Instead, there are many ways to research and find long-tail keywords that are right for your business.

Google has a few tools that make it easy to conduct keyword research, and their free AdWords tool called Keyword Planner is a great place to start -- especially if you use AdWords for some of your campaigns. (Note: You'll need to set up an AdWords account to use Keyword Planner, but that doesn't mean you have to create an ad.)

When you input one keyword, multiple keywords, or even your website address into Keyword Planner, Google will spit out a list of related keywords along with simple metrics to gauge how fierce the competition is around each one and how many searches it gets on both a global and local search level.

It'll also show you historical statistics and information on how a list of keywords might perform -- and it'll create a new keyword list by multiplying several lists of keywords together. Since it's a free AdWords tool, it can also help you choose competitive bids and budgets to use with your AdWords campaigns.

Google Trends is another free tool from Google. It lets you enter multiple keywords and filter by location, search history, and category. Once you enter that information in, it'll give you results that show how much web interest there is around a particular keyword, what caused the interest (e.g., press coverage), and where the traffic is coming from -- along with similar keywords.

The best part about Google Trends is that it doesn't just give you static keyword volume numbers like most keyword research tools. Instead, it generates colorful, interactive graphs that you can play with, download, and even embed on your website. It'll also give you more dynamic insight into a keyword with information like relative popularity of a search term over time.

One way to use Google Trends? If you're trying to decide between two keyword variations for your latest blog post title. Simply perform a quick comparison search in Google Trends to see which one is getting searched more often.

Keyword Tool is pretty rudimentary online keyword research tool, but if you're just looking for a list of long-tail keyword suggestions related to one you already have in mind, then it can be useful. It's also totally free -- to use the most basic version, you don't even need to create an account.

What Keyword Tool does is use Google Autocomplete to generate a list of relevant long-tail keywords suggestions. The search terms suggested by Google Autocomplete are based on a few different factors, like how often users were searching for a particular term in the past.

It'll give you data for all the results on page one of search engine results pages (SERPs), including the number of results, link strength, trust score, and keyword difficulty. To help you get a handle on your competitors, you can use the tool to research domain age, page ranking, and links, as well as the word count, page rank, links, outbound links, and the number of keyword occurrences in title, URL, and headers for individual webpages. You can also export all this data into a CSV for your own analysis.

Note: If you only plan on using it a few times a day, there is actually a free version of this tool that'll do five tiny keyword jobs and five keyword analyses per day, with no queue priority. 041b061a72


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