c. 1660–1680),  was initially a small kingdom in northern Jebel Marra,  but expanded west- and northwards in the early 18th century and eastwards under the rule of Muhammad Tayrab (r. 1751–1786),  peaking in the conquest of Kordofan in 1785.  The apogee of this empire, now roughly the size of present-day Nigeria,  would last until 1821.  Turkiyah and Mahdist Sudan (1821–1899) Ismail Pasha, the Ottoman Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879. In 1821, the Ottoman ruler of Egypt, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, had invaded and conquered northern Sudan. Although technically the Vali of Egypt under the Ottoman Empire, Muhammad Ali styled himself as Khedive of a virtually independent Egypt.
"Egyptian‐Sudanese Trade in the Ottoman Period to 1882". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. doi:10. 1093/acrefore/9780190277734. 013. 8. ISBN 978-0-19-027773-4. ^ Henehan, Alva D. Jr. (2016). For Want Of A Camel: The Story of Britain's Failed Sudan Campaign, 1883–1885. [Place of publication not identified]: Outskirts Press. ISBN 978-1-4787-6562-2. OCLC 1007048089. ^ a b "عن السودان" (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2017. ^ Collins, Robert O.
(2008). A History of Modern Sudan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85820-5. ^ "Omar al-Bashir Fast Facts". CNN. 10 December 2012. ^ International Association for the History of Religions (1959), Numen, Leiden: EJ Brill, p. 131, West Africa may be taken as the country stretching from Senegal in the West to the Cameroons in the East; sometimes it has been called the central and western Sudan, the Bilad as-Sūdan, 'Land of the Blacks', of the Arabs ^ "Sudan A Country Study".
 Health Sudan has a life expectancy of 65. 1 years according to the latest data for the year 2019 from macrotrends. net Infant mortality in 2016 was 44. 8 per 1, 000.  UNICEF estimates that 87% of Sudanese females between the ages of 15 to 49 have had female genital mutilation performed on them.  Education Education in Sudan is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 13 years, although more than 40% of children do not go to schools due to the economic situation. Environmental and social factors also increase the difficulty of getting to school, especially for girls.  Primary education consists of eight years, followed by three years of secondary education.
 In 2014, 45% of the population lives on less than US$3. 20 per day, up from 43% in 2009.  Science and research Sudan has around 25–30 universities; instruction is primarily in Arabic or English. Education at the secondary and university levels has been seriously hampered by the requirement that most males perform military service before completing their education.  In addition, the "Islamisation" encouraged by president Al-Bashir alienated many researchers: the official language of instruction in universities was changed from English to Arabic and Islamic courses became mandatory.
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 Oil was Sudan's main export, with production increasing dramatically during the late 2000s, in the years before South Sudan gained independence in July 2011. With rising oil revenues, the Sudanese economy was booming, with a growth rate of about nine percent in 2007. The independence of oil-rich South Sudan, however, placed most major oilfields out of the Sudanese government's direct control and oil production in Sudan fell from around 450, 000 barrels per day (72, 000 m3/d) to under 60, 000 barrels per day (9, 500 m3/d).
 Politics The politics of Sudan formally took place within the framework of a federal representative democratic republic until April 2019, when President Omar al-Bashir's regime was overthrown in a military coup led by Vice President Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf. As an initial step he established the Transitional Military Council to manage the country's internal affairs. He also suspended the constitution and dissolved the bicameral parliament — the National Legislature, with its National Assembly (lower chamber) and the Council of States (upper chamber). Ibn Auf however, remained in office for only a single day and then resigned, with the leadership of the Transitional Military Council then being handed to Abdel Fattah al-Burhan.
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The latter eventually founded a kingdom on their own, Nobatia.  By the sixth century there were in total three Nubian kingdoms: Nobatia in the north, which had its capital at Pachoras (Faras); the central kingdom, Makuria centred at Tungul (Old Dongola), about 13 kilometres (8 miles) south of modern Dongola; and Alodia, in the heartland of the old Kushitic kingdom, which had its capital at Soba (now a suburb of modern-day Khartoum).  Still in the sixth century they converted to Christianity.
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However, Egyptian sovereignty in Sudan would henceforth be rather nominal, as the true power in both Egypt and Sudan was now the United Kingdom. In 1899, under British pressure, Egypt agreed to share sovereignty over Sudan with the United Kingdom as a condominium. In effect, Sudan was governed as a British possession.  The 20th century saw the growth of both Egyptian and Sudanese nationalism focusing on ending the United Kingdom's occupation.
This succeeded, as he managed to expel Taharqa from Lower Egypt. Taharqa fled back to Upper Egypt and Nubia, where he died two years later. Lower Egypt came under Assyrian vassalage but proved unruly, unsuccessfully rebelling against the Assyrians. Then, the king Tantamani, a successor of Taharqa, made a final determined attempt to regain Lower Egypt from the newly re-instated Assyrian vassal Necho I. He managed to retake Memphis killing Necho in the process and besieged cities in the Nile Delta. Ashurbanipal, who had succeeded Esarhaddon, sent a large army in Egypt to regain control. He routed Tantamani near Memphis and, pursuing him, sacked Thebes.
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